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Pharmaceutical Disposal

Increasing use of pharmaceuticals – which include prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, personal care products, vitamins and veterinary drugs -- has created concern over the effects of these drugs on our environment.

Increasing use of pharmaceuticals – which include prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, personal care products, vitamins and veterinary drugs -- has created concern over the effects of these drugs on our environment.  Unused and expired drugs are often flushed down the toilet as a means of disposal, where they are permitted to travel freely though our septic systems and municipal waste water treatment plants into our waterways.

The effect of this chemical load on our environment is inconclusive.  Limited studies on the detection of these compounds in drinking water sources have focused on the potential effects on human health.  No comprehensive studies have been conducted on the effects on aquatic life or ecosystems in general.

What Are Pharmaceuticals?

Pharmaceuticals are compounds manufactured for use as a medical drug.  Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) include a  diverse collection of thousands of chemical substances such as prescription, veterinary, and over-the-counter (OTC) therapeutic drugs, fragrances, cosmetics, sun-screen agents, diagnostic agents, nutraceuticals (vitamins), biopharmaceuticals, and growth enhancing chemicals used in livestock operations, among others.

Another distinction that exists between different types of pharmaceuticals is whether the drug is “controlled” or “un-controlled”.  Controlled substances are controlled by law, which in Pills in Handsthe case of the United States is by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA).  The DEA maintains of list of controlled substances that is broken down into different “schedules” depending on the potential for misuse, abuse or dependence.

All controlled drugs and some un-controlled drugs require a prescription from a doctor to obtain.  For unused or expired medications, the controlled status of the drug determines the legal avenues available for proper disposal.

Threats to Water and Human Health

Studies to determine the short term effects of trace pharmaceuticals in our water have not yielded conclusive results, and no long term studies have been widely commissioned.  The studies so far focus on human health from pharmaceuticals in drinking water sources, and not the effects to the food we take out of the oceans and rivers nor the environment and ecosystem as a whole.  In short, there are many unknowns.

Pharmaceuticals enter our waterways several ways including after they are passed through our bodies, runoff from agricultural areas, and from direct introduction into our environment by flushing or pouring down the drain.  Click here for an infographic showing how pharmaceuticals enter the environment.

While these chemical compounds have been detected in our nation’s water supplies at very low levels, usually measured in parts per billion or trillion, there is still concern.  Hormones, for example, work at very low concentrations in the human body. Types of drugs that have demonstrated ecotoxicological effects on aquatic ecosystems include:

  • Hormones (birth control pills)
  • Antibiotics
  • Analgesics (ibuprofen)
  • Anti-depressants
  • Anti-epileptics
  • Impotence drugs (Viagra)
  • Retinoids
  • Fragrances
  • Preservatives
  • Disinfectants
  • Nutraceuticals

Currently, pharmaceuticals and personal care products are not regulated by the EPA, and municipal drinking water and wastewater treatment plants are not required to test for or remove these chemical compounds.  Due to the varied nature of these chemicals, most water treatment plants are not set up to detect or to treat pharmaceuticals in municipal supplies.  For the many Alaskan’s that use septic systems, flushed pharmaceuticals are introduced directly into the environment through leaching and introduction to ground water.

More research is needed to establish conclusive evidence of harm to human health or the environment from improperly disposed pharmaceuticals.  While initial studies have not found a direct link between pharmaceuticals in the environment and human health, long term studies and studies on the effects of vulnerable populations (pregnant women, people with allergies, children, etc.) have not been conducted.

Proper Disposal

Not in the Toilet, Not in the TrashLearning the procedures for proper pharmaceutical disposal is an easy way for individuals to reduce this chemical load from entering our environment.  Unlike recycling, there are laws to consider that have been devised to prevent misuse and abuse of these sometimes very powerful drugs.

The easiest method for proper disposal is by finding a receptacle specifically made for prescription drug disposal or participating in one of the National Take-Back Days, which are held twice per year in April and October.  These events allow consumers to bring their unused pharmaceuticals to a Prescription Drug Boxcentral location for proper disposal.  Depending on the event, acceptable items may be limited to un-controlled substances (OTC drugs, vitamins, personal care products).  Currently, only law enforcement agencies can accept controlled substances for disposal.

Some locations are equipped to take back pharmaceuticals year-round for proper disposal.

Collection Agency

Controlled

Un-Controlled

Notes

Homer Police Department

X

X

Permanent, Year-Round

Soldotna Police Department

X

X

Permanent, Year-Round

Anchorage Police Department

X

X

Permanent, Year-Round

Fred Meyer Pharmacies

 

X

Mailers available for purchase.

Walgreens Pharmacies

 

X

 

Providence Health Park Pharmacy

 

X

 

Providence Medical Arts Pharmacy

 

X

 

Soldotna Professional Pharmacy

 

X

 

Take-Back Events

National Take-Back Days are generally held each April and October.

The following locations collect prescriptions and OTC medications that day in addition to their year round service.

  • Homer: Homer Police Department, 4060 Heath Street, Homer, AK 907-235-3150
  • Soldotna Police Department, 44510 Sterling Highway, Soldotna, AK 907-262-4455
  • Anchorage Police Department, 4501 Elmore Road, Anchorage, AK 99507, 907-786-8500

Current Laws and Regulations

There are valid concerns regarding take-back programs run by non-law enforcement agencies, including security and diversion control, but also a desire to make proper disposal more accessible and convenient to all consumers.  Currently, only un-controlled pharmaceuticals such as personal care products (sunscreen, soaps, fragrances, etc.), over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, and veterinary drugs are permitted to be easily collected by non-law enforcement agencies for proper disposal.  For these items, many convenient options exist, such as drop boxes at pharmacies and pre-addressed mailers.

In 2010, the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act was signed into law, with the intention to make proper disposal of controlled substances possible.   Currently, DEA has concluded its public comment period for draft regulations that would put this law into action.  The draft rules and comments can be read here.

Cook Inletkeeper will be monitoring the outcome of these regulations to further identify ways to promote proper pharmaceutical disposal in our communities.

Resources

Drug Enforcement Agency, Office of Diversion Control – National Take Back Initiative

DEA – Controlled Substance Schedules

Food and Drug Administration – Disposal of Unused Medicines

EPA – How to Dispose of Medicines Properly

EPA – Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Water

World Health Organization – Information Sheet: Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water

The Teleosis Institute – Spring/Summer 2007 Newsletter  - Green Pharmacy

Sharps Compliance Inc. – Unused Medication Disposal Solutions

Disposal Directories:

http://www.awarerx.org/get-local/alaska/drug-disposal-information

http://www.americanmedicinechest.com/